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The Hall Effect

The Hall effect (named after the American physicist Edwin Herbert Hall, 1855-1938) discovered in 1879, is the basis for all Hall-effect devices. It involves the generation of an electric potential perpendicular to both an electric current flowing along a conducting material and an external magnetic field applied at right angles to the current upon application of the magnetic field.

The Hall-Effect
Where: B = applied field, I = input current and VH= Hall voltage

The Hall element, produces an output voltage proportional to a magnetic field or to the distance between a magnet and the sensor. To make a linear magnetic sensor, this small voltage is processed through a high-quality amplifier, which produces an analog output that is proportional to the applied flux density.